Stage 4: Wider reading 段階4: より広い読書

Unit 16: The History Of Chess


The History Of Chess


Joseph Needham attributes to the star gazers of ancient China the transition of the game of Chess from the East to the West over a time span of more than two millennia.

古代中国の星の取締官へのヨセフNeedham の属性東からの多くにより2 千年間の時間上の西へのチェスのゲームの転移。

Back in distant history they centred their philosophies concerning the heavens upon the constellation of the Great Bear, or Northern Dipper, which had special importance in Chinese polar-equatorial astronomy.


Historically speaking, chess has been associated with astronomical symbolism throughout its development, and especially so in ancient forms of the game.


Needham points out that these older forms derived from a number of divination techniques in which small models of celestial bodies were thrown or positioned upon special boards used by a diviner and termed the shih.

Needham はこれらのより古い形態が天体の小さいモデルがdiviner によって使用され、shih と名づけられた特別な板に投げられるか、または置かれたいくつかの占いの技術から得たことを指摘する。

This was a double-decked cosmical diagram which represented the earth by a square base board and the heavens by means of a rotatable heaven-plate.

これはa doubledecked 回転天版によって正方形のベース板および天によって地球を表した宇宙図表をだった。

Both were marked with the technical cosmological terms used only in divination.


The central aim in divination was to assess the guiding role in man's affairs that was attributable to the heavens.


Their influence upon mankind was believed to be governed by the balance between Ying and Yang forces within the universe that might be in disharmony as they directed the affairs of men.

人類に影響はそれらが人の出来事を指示したようにdisharmony にあるかもしれない宇宙内のYing 及びYang 力間のバランスによって支配されると信じられた。

By divination, the degrees of contention between these forces could be assessed.


Long before chess became a war game in India the early forms of chess were practised in China as a development from the diviners art as he determined the influence of the stars upon the uncertainties of war and peace.

チェスのずっと前に彼が戦争及び平和の不確実性に星の影響を定めたと同時にチェスの早い形態がdiviners の芸術からの開発として中国で練習されたインドの戦争ゲームはなった。

The positions assumed upon the board of the various cosmic symbols gradually gave place to their use in games of skill such as the early forms of chess.


Among the symbolic models which the diviner used was one that was shaped like a spoon and this represented the Great Bear.

diviner が使用した記号モデル間にスプーンのように定形のおよびこれは表した大熊座をあった1 つ。

In those early times it had special relevance because of its cosmological importance.


Among these symbols the spoon assumed even greater significance when it was realised in the + 1 st century that the "magical" properties of magnetism might be bestowed upon the spoon by making it of magnetite.

これらの記号間でスプーンは磁気の"魔法の" 特性はスプーンに磁鉄鉱ことをのそれを作ることによって贈与されるかもしれないことがで+ 第1 世紀実現されたときにすばらしい重大さを仮定した。

From this finding, further developments led not only to the game of chess but also to the magnetised needles that have found their place in the compass and in the various instruments of modem magneto-electrical science.


The game of chess was therefore not the only product of those who theorised about the heavens.


The transmission of their concepts concerning the relations between the heavens, the earth, the forces of Ying and Yang, and the everyday affairs of mankind gradually came to affect almost every aspect of life in the East

天、地球、Ying 及びYang の力、及び人類の毎日の出来事間の関係に関する概念の伝達は次第に東の生命のほとんどあらゆる面に影響を与えることを来た

These conclusions provided the characteristic philosophies that underpinned Chinese existence, philosophies which have been much more difficult to appreciate in the West than have manoeuvres in the game of chess.