Stage 4: Wider reading 阶段 4: 宽阔地文学

Unit 16: The History Of Chess


The History Of Chess


Joseph Needham attributes to the star gazers of ancient China the transition of the game of Chess from the East to the West over a time span of more than two millennia.

约瑟夫・Needham 属性对古老中国的星凝视的人棋的转折从东方与西方在超过二个千年时间.

Back in distant history they centred their philosophies concerning the heavens upon the constellation of the Great Bear, or Northern Dipper, which had special importance in Chinese polar-equatorial astronomy.


Historically speaking, chess has been associated with astronomical symbolism throughout its development, and especially so in ancient forms of the game.

历史的讲,国际象棋已经与天文学的有关象征主义彻头彻尾它的发展,并且尤其如此在比赛的远古的窗体 .

Needham points out that these older forms derived from a number of divination techniques in which small models of celestial bodies were thrown or positioned upon special boards used by a diviner and termed the shih.

Needham磅外面那这些年长的窗体来自于许多占卜技术在哪一个天体的小模型被投或位置在特殊板之上使用由更神和期间 shih.

This was a double-decked cosmical diagram which represented the earth by a square base board and the heavens by means of a rotatable heaven-plate.


Both were marked with the technical cosmological terms used only in divination.


The central aim in divination was to assess the guiding role in man's affairs that was attributable to the heavens.


Their influence upon mankind was believed to be governed by the balance between Ying and Yang forces within the universe that might be in disharmony as they directed the affairs of men.

他们的影响在人类之上被相信被统治由平衡位于Ying和Yang迫使在宇宙以内那可以是在不和谐作为他们定向的男人的事件 .

By divination, the degrees of contention between these forces could be assessed.


Long before chess became a war game in India the early forms of chess were practised in China as a development from the diviners art as he determined the influence of the stars upon the uncertainties of war and peace.


The positions assumed upon the board of the various cosmic symbols gradually gave place to their use in games of skill such as the early forms of chess.

位置假装在之上板的不同cosmic符号应用逐渐地让位于他们的在技巧的比赛比如国际象棋的早窗体 .

Among the symbolic models which the diviner used was one that was shaped like a spoon and this represented the Great Bear.


In those early times it had special relevance because of its cosmological importance.


Among these symbols the spoon assumed even greater significance when it was realised in the + 1 st century that the "magical" properties of magnetism might be bestowed upon the spoon by making it of magnetite.

在这些之中符号匙假装甚至更伟大的重要性它是当realised在+1st世纪那"魔术的"磁性的属性可以被授予在匙之上由用磁铁矿制作它 .

From this finding, further developments led not only to the game of chess but also to the magnetised needles that have found their place in the compass and in the various instruments of modem magneto-electrical science.

从这发现, 更加进一步的发展导致了不仅棋而且发现了他们的地方在指南针和在调制解调器磁电机电子科学的各种各样的仪器的被磁化的针.

The game of chess was therefore not the only product of those who theorised about the heavens.


The transmission of their concepts concerning the relations between the heavens, the earth, the forces of Ying and Yang, and the everyday affairs of mankind gradually came to affect almost every aspect of life in the East


These conclusions provided the characteristic philosophies that underpinned Chinese existence, philosophies which have been much more difficult to appreciate in the West than have manoeuvres in the game of chess.