Stage 4: Wider reading 段階4: より広い読書

Unit 4: Plants And Microorganisms


Plants And Microorganisms


In "Famine on the Wind", Carefoot and Sprott (1) present a detailed description of the profound influence the important fungus diseases, and a few of the viruses, have had upon the history of many countries, operating by their effects on agricultural productivity.

"風の飢饉では" 、Carefoot 及びSprott (1) の現在深遠な影響の詳しい記述重要な菌の病気、及び少数はのウイルス農業の生産性に対する効果によって作動する多くの国の歴史に、持っていた。

Man's increasing demands for food and for other valuable vegetable products, like rubber, and timber have frequently been frustrated by insect pests, fungi, bacteria or viruses.


Given the correct seasonal conditions, these organisms can work havoc upon agricultural productivity.


There are numerous examples, such as: ergot of rye, wheat rust, the grain smuts, potato blight, downy mildew of grapes, coffee rust and banana diseases;

多数の例が、のようなある: ブドウのライムギ、ムギ錆、穀物のsmuts 、ジャガイモの疫病、綿毛のようなべと病、コーヒー錆およびバナナの病気の麦角;

the bacterial diseases that attack silk worms, vegetables, citrus and trees;


and viruses that cause systemic diseases such as barley yellow dwarf or leaf roll of potato.


Many are carried by wind and others by secondary agents, such as the aphids that transmit the tobacco mosaic virus, although these too may be borne on the wind.


Three fungal diseases may be chosen as examples of historic interest, ergot of rye, mildew of grapes and potato blight.

3 つのfungal 病気は歴史的な興味の例、ライムギの麦角、ブドウのべと病およびジャガイモの疫病として選ばれるかもしれない。

The conditions which favour the development of the purple cockspurs on rye are wet, heavy morning fogs in the spring time.

ライムギの紫色のcockspurs の開発を支持する条件はばねの時間にぬれた、重い朝ぼやけるである。

When the prevailing climatic conditions are of the right pattem, the fungus (Claviceps purpurea) spreads explosively through the fields, until in some bad-ergot years half or more of the rye heads carry the ergot.

勝つ気候条件が右のpattem であるとき、半分ある悪麦角年またはライムギの頭部の多くで麦角を運びなさいまで、菌類(Claviceps のpurpurea) は分野を通って爆発性に広がる。

In the past, it was customary for black rye bread to be the staple food of the common people in southern France, and in inclement years the prevalence of the ergot led to a serious poisoning, termed 'Holy Fire" or "St. Anthony's Fire"

以前、黒いライムギパンが南フランスと厳しい年の庶民のステープル食糧であることは通常' 神聖な火"か" St. アンソニーの火と"名づけられた深刻な中毒に導かれた麦角の流行だった

The fever attacks the central nervous system.


It tore away men's reason and turned them into screaming, gibbering brutes, or into hopeless cripples as their fingers, toes, arms and legs blackened and corroded from a dry gangrene.

それは指、つま先、腕および足が乾燥した壊疽から黒くなり、腐食したと同時に離れた人の理由を引き裂き、叫ぶ、gibbering のけだもの、または絶望的な身体障害者にそれらを回した。

Only death gave relief.


Holy Fire was first reported from the Rhine Valley in the Kingdom of the Franks in +857. Another epidemic spread through France in 1039, and led a certain Gaston de la Valloire, to establish hospitals for the victims.

神聖な火は+857 の無料配達郵便物の王国のラインの谷から最初に報告された。別の伝染病は1039 年にフランスを通って広がり、あるGaston de la Valloire を、犠牲者のための病院を確立するために導いた。

These were dedicated to St. Anthony and hence the alternate name.

これらはSt. アンソニー及びそれ故に互い違い名前に専用されていた。

More and more hospitals were established to treat the victims as the disease raged on whenever the spring time was moist and foggy.


The scourge was greatly feared, and its cause remained unrecognised until 1670 when a French doctor found it was associated with the eating of rye bread.

天罰は非常に恐れられ、原因はフランスの医者がライムギパンの食べることとそれを関連付けられた見つけた1670 年まで認識されなく残った。

It has been found that only 2% ergot contamination of the bread is likely to cause an epidemic.

パンの2% だけ麦角の汚染が伝染病をもたらして本当らしいことが分られた。

The disease even had significance historically, for Peter the Great failed in a bid to open a route to the Black Sea because his army was badly hit by the Holy Fire, when it entered the Volga Delta and affected horses and men.

Volga のデルタを書き入れ、馬及び人に影響を与えたときに彼の軍隊が神聖な火によって悪く当られたので病気にピーターのために歴史的にあった重大さが、入札で大きいの黒海にルートを開けられなくて。

The cause of the sickness has now been traced to powerful alkaloid drugs, one of which is lysergic acid diethylamide or the LSD of modern drug addiction fame.

病気の原因は1 つが変復調装置の麻薬の常用の名声のlysergic 酸diethylamide またはLSD である強力なアルカロイド薬剤に今辿られてしまった。

Downy mildew of grapes is a disease of more recent origin, but the growing of grapes has an ancient history.


The grape is an ancient plant found in fossil form from Alaska to China, but in greatest abundance around the Caspian Sea.


Its origin is placed at somewhere in the valleys of the Caucasus.


From thence it spread westward through Asia Minor into Thrace and eastward into Turkestan.

thence それからThrace と東向きにTurkestan にアジア未成年者を通って西方に広げなさい。

The main species still grow wild in the forests around the Caspian.


There are about 50 species, but the most useful is Vitis vinifera, whose sweet, succulent berries, charged with bouquets and flavours are carefully tended on every continent of the world.

約50 の種があるが、最も有用の花束及び味と満たされる菓子、水気が多い果実注意深く世界のあらゆる大陸でがちであるVitis vinifera である。

Wine from grapes is mentioned in the histories of the Near East as far back as 4000 years ago.

ブドウからのワインは前に4000 年近東の背部の歴史で同様にずっと述べられる。

It was in -500 that the grape first came to France.

それは-500 にブドウがフランスに最初に来たことだった。

In 1845, mildew was observed on grapes in England and then, in 1848, it was seen on vines near Versailles.

1845 年に、べと病はイギリスのブドウで観察され、次に、1848 年に、それはバーセイルズの近くのツルで見られた。

Within five years it had reached every vineyard in Europe, North Africa, and the islands of the Mediterranean.

5 年以内にそれは内陸のヨーロッパ、北アフリカ、および島のあらゆるブドウ園に達した。

By that time there were 7 million hectares of vines in Europe, and financial losses were therefore enormous.

その時間までにヨーロッパのツルの7,000,000 匹のヘクタールがあり、財政損失は従って巨大だった。

At first, the mildew was controlled with a lime sulphur spray, but later it was found in Bordeaux that a mixture of copper sulphate and lime gave the most effective control.


The best control, however, is a climatic one.

しかし最もよい制御は気候上の1 である。