Stage 4: Wider reading 段階4: より広い読書

Unit 11: Climate , Agriculture And Society


Climate , Agriculture And Society


In both East and West, the transition from old concepts has come through the enhanced capacity for scientific observation that has been achieved.


It has been realised that changes in the energy received from the sun may be of sufficient magnitude to exert a major bearing on climate.


These have a periodicity that is reflected in the pattern of climatic events associated with ice ages.


The present historic period follows the most recent ice age but is the period in which agriculture was initiated during the Climatic Optimum.


Short term fluctuations in the output of solar energy have only minor effects on climate.


But, long term fluctuations have had profound effects.


In China, changes have been observed to occur roughly at intervals of two centuries, and it was obvious from numerous records in the West that there are periodicities that are roughly two centuries in length in climatic tre

中国で、変更は2 世紀の間隔に大体起こるために観察され気候上のtre の長さ大体2 世紀の周律があること西の多数の記録から明らかだった

These changes cannot be regarded as fixed, they are of an approximate order.


But, we note that Chinese historians observed such periodicities and because Chinese thought was fixed on the past and on ancestral influence on patterns of behaviour, its historians were inclined to regard human existence


In China, the coincidence of periods of social instability, barbarian invasion, plague and pestilence occurred at times when Asia was dry and the continental influence pushed back the monsoons so leading to crop failures

中国で、社会的な不安定、野蛮な侵入、ペストおよびpestilence の期間の同時発生はアジアが乾燥して、大陸影響がそう不作をもたらすモンスーンを押したときに時々起こった

The patterns of change in world climate have been quasi-periodic, not random.


The changes have affected agriculture, as has been substantiated from the coincidence of major changes during the period -8000 to 0 between climate and agricultural development.

変更は気候と農業開発間の期間-8000 から0 の間の主要な変更の同時発生から立証されたように、農業に影響を与えた。

There have been periods such as those highlighted by Bell when the coincidence of adverse climatic conditions had a catastrophic effect in social terms upon Empires that had been flourishing for long periods over extended are

不利な気候条件の同時発生が広がり過ぎたずっと長期の間ある活気づいていた帝国に社会的な言葉で破局的な効果をもたらしたときにBell が強調するそれらのような期間がずっとある

These effects had significant impact upon such agriculturally based communities because their prosperity was closely dependent upon the supply of food.


Effects socially did not coincide exactly but were delayed, sometimes in the order of several decades.


In our own era, the rise and fall of civilisations in such far distant areas as Cambodia and Southern Mexico has reflected changes in climate of an intermittent character which can be related to the location and intensity of the intertropical convergence zone.


These are attuned to the occurrence of cold periods in higher latitudes and so reflect changes in the pattern of the Earth's heat distribution.


Similarly, countries situated astride the tropical and temperate zones, such as China and Australia, are greatly influenced by changes in the location of fronts between masses of cold and monsoonal air.

同様に、熱帯及び穏健な地帯にまたがって、中国及びオーストラリアのような置かれる国は風邪の固まりとmonsoonal の空気間の前部の位置の変更によって非常に影響を及ぼされる。

Such shifts may be for long periods of time (of the order of one or two centuries, but sometimes of millennia, as in the Climatic Optimum).

そのような転位は1-2 世紀の等級の、時々気候上の最適のように千年間の長い一定期間の間かもしれない(、) ある。

"Wobbles" in the circumpolar vortex influence the position of such fronts.

そのような前部の位置は天極付近の渦の影響で"よろよろしている" 。