Stage 4: Wider reading 阶段 4: 宽阔地文学

Unit 2: The Hyksos in Egypt


The Hyksos in Egypt


When Abram left Ur of the Chaldees, with Terah his father, to slowly make his way through Haran to Canaan and eventually on to Egypt he was only doing what many others did in his times.


For the Old World extended from Harappan and Mohenjo Dahro in India across the great river city states of the Tigris and Euphrates region, via the mountains of the Fertile Crescent and the land bridge of Canaan down to the majestic empire of Egypt.


Concourse across these vast territories was already at least two thousand years old, involving the varied interests of commerce, war and travel.

集合横过这些巨大领土已经至少二千岁,包括商业的不同的利益 ,战争和旅行.

By the time Abram reached Egypt he was already a man of substance who was received and honoured by the Pharaoh.


He was again one of many from the land of Canaan who had been entering that land during the preceding the centuries, (perhaps from as early as 2533 B.C.) as part of a widespread movement engaged in commerce, or as emissaries.


His time would probably have been during the Twelfth Dynasty in Egypt, although it is not yet possible to fix a date with any certainty.


At that time, the influence of Semitic peoples was on the increase in Egypt.

在那时,影响的 Semitic人进行增加在埃及.

The rulers at Thebes became their vassals and eventually were replaced by them.


Their origin is the subject of controversy.

他们的起点是辩论的主题 .

Knight (p.99 ) considers that the Hyksos represent the mingled Semitic peoples of the Arabian desert, along with the nomadic dwellers in Canaan and the surrounding territories.

骑士(p.99)考虑那Hyksos抗议混合Semitic阿拉伯的沙漠的人 ,和游牧的居民一起在 Canaart和周围领土.

By the native Egyptians these invaders were called Hyksos, a name which meant "prince of the desert", and in its plural form became, in later ages, "Shepherd kings".

由本国的埃及人这些侵略者被称为 Hyksos,名字意味着 "沙漠的王子",并且在它的复数形成变成,在稍后年龄, "牧羊人国王".

They became the Pharaohs for some 140 years until they were finally defeated in battle by Ahmose 1, who expelled them from the land in 1570 B.C..

他们变成法老王为一些140年直到他们最后击败在战役由 Ahmose 1,谁驱逐他们从陆地在 1570 B.C..

For a long time, the Egyptians made every effort to erase all traces of the Semites, even to avoiding the re-establishment of their capital in the south of Egypt.

很长时间,埃及人制作每努力擦除Semites的所有痕迹 甚至避免 re-他们的首都的制定在埃及.

However, this may not have been the case under Ramesses 11 who pursued a vigorous building policy in the cities of Pir-Ramesses and Pithom in the Delta region.


The process of infiltration into Egypt was gradual and was driven by two factors of interest.

渗入的处理进入埃及逐渐的和被推动兴趣的二因素 .

Firstly, these groups of Western Asiatic peoples were forced southward by widespread disturbances due to drought in lands to the north and east of Egypt.

首先,西方的Asiatic的这些组人被迫使南方由普遍风风雨雨由于干旱在陆地北和埃及的东方 .

Secondly, the Egyptian rulers had lost power as is shown by the fact that between 1786 and 1603B.C. seventy individuals came to the throne, generally for only short periods.

其次,埃及人标尺已遗失发动作为被给由看事实是位于 1786和 1603 B.C. 七十个体的即王位,通常为仅仅短的时期.

They were such times of uncertainty as are described above by Bell:


"In the history of the ancient Near East two striking Dark Ages have occurred.


They occurred more or less simultaneously (within the limits of current dating accuracy) over a wide area extending at least from Greece to Mesopotamia and Elam, from Anatolia to Egypt, and probably beyond.


In Egypt, where the chronology is best established, the first age Dark Age began around 2200 B.C., when at the end of Dynasty VI, Egypt until then a very stable society, with seeming suddenness fell into anarchy.

在埃及,在哪里chronology最好建立,第一年龄黑暗的年龄开始在附近2200B.C.,当在朝代末VI,埃及直到那时非常稳定的社会,和外观 suddenness落入无政府状态.

About the same time the Akkadian Empire disintegrated."

几乎一样的时间 Akkadian帝国分解."